May 23, 2015

The Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI) - a measure of how many nutrients common foods deliver to your body for each calorie consumed

ANDI is an easy visualization of which foods are the most beneficial to eat and how foods compare to one another in nutrient density. The higher the scores (1,000 is the highest) and the greater percentage of those foods in your diet, the better your health will be.

ANDI 500 to 1000: Kale: 1,000; Collard greens: 1,000; Mustard greens: 1,000; Watercress: 1,000; Swiss chard: 895; Bok choy: 865; Spinach: 707; Arugula: 604; Romaine: 510

ANDI 100 to 500: Brussels sprouts: 490; Carrots: 458; Cabbage: 434; Broccoli: 340; Cauliflower: 315; Bell peppers: 265; Mushrooms: 238; Asparagus: 205; Tomato: 186; Strawberries: 182; Sweet potato: 181; Zucchini: 164; Artichoke: 145; Blueberries: 132; Iceberg lettuce: 127; Grapes: 119; Pomegranates: 119; Cantaloupe: 118; Onions: 109; Flax seeds: 103

ANDI 50 to 100: Orange: 98; Edamame: 98; Cucumber: 87; Tofu: 82; Sesame seeds: 74; Lentils: 72; Peaches: 65; Sunflower seeds: 64; Kidney beans: 64; Green peas: 64; Cherries: 55; Pineapple: 54; Apple: 53; Mango: 53; Peanut butter: 51

ANDI 25 to 50: Corn: 45; Pistachio nuts: 37; Shrimp: 36; Salmon: 34; Eggs: 34; Milk, 1%: 31; Walnuts: 30; Bananas: 30; Whole-wheat bread: 30; Almonds: 28; Avocado: 28; Brown rice: 28; White potato: 28; Low-fat plain yogurt: 28; Cashews: 27; Oatmeal: 26

ANDI 1 to 25: Chicken breast: 24; Ground beef, 85% lean: 21; Feta cheese: 20; White bread: 17; White bread (estimated without fortification): 9; White pasta: 16; White pasta (estimated without fortification): 11; French fries: 12; Cheddar cheese: 11; Apple juice: 11; Olive oil: 10; Vanilla ice cream: 9; Corn chips: 7; Cola: 1 
(Adapted from ‘Eat to Live Cookbook’, by Dr. Joel Fuhrman, M.D.)

May 16, 2015

Year: 1848 – Some happenings in Europe and America

The year 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe. Uprisings occurred in France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Great Britain. Ordinary people everywhere were demanding change. Farmers, merchants, and craftsmen were no longer content to see their rulers live in splendid comfort while their own families lived difficult, impoverished lives. They wanted affordable food, the ability under the law to own land, and they wanted a society that treated them justly. In certain places people who spoke the same language wanted their own independent nation. Many people demanded a voice in electing the leaders who governed them. Some read a new pamphlet by Karl Marx titled The Communist Manifesto. Marx did not put his trust in religion to change society, but in revolution. If people wanted justice, he wrote, the proletariat -- the working class -- must revolt against the rulers and the wealthy.

Those in power, long accustomed to doing what they pleased, were slow to respond. When the French National Assembly wrangled in disagreement over reforms, angry citizens broke into its chambers and overran the Assembly. King Louis-Philippe was forced to flee the country. In the ongoing struggle for reform, the French fought bloody street battles. They were not alone.

May 9, 2015

Library of Congress

It is the largest and most comprehensive library in the world, located in Washington, D.C. The Library of Congress functions as the national library of the United States, although it has never been officially recognized as such through legislation. The library’s primary purpose is to serve the Congress of the United States, but its collections, services, and reading rooms are freely available for use by all persons over high school age. The Library of Congress also serves as the official copyright agency of the United States.

Established by an act of Congress in 1800, the library was first located in the Capitol building in Washington, D.C. Today the Library of Congress occupies three large buildings in the Capitol Hill area of the city, near the Capitol building and the United States Supreme Court building. Approximately 1 million people visit the library each year.

The Library of Congress also works closely with specialized libraries in the executive branch of government that have been designated by Congress as national libraries. These include the National Library of Medicine, the National Agricultural Library, and the National Library of Education.

May 2, 2015

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

In recent years a number of theorists have proposed the existence of emotional intelligence that is complementary to the type of intelligence measured by IQ tests.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior.

American psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer, introduced the concept in 1990. Emotionally intelligent people can use their emotions to guide thoughts and behavior and can accurately read others’ emotions. Daniel Goleman, an American author and journalist, popularized the concept in his book Emotional Intelligence (1995). He expanded the concept to include general social competence.

There are three models of EI. The ability model focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report. The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI. It defines EI as an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance.

Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, exemplary job performance, and more potent leadership skills. Markers of EI and methods of developing it have become more widely coveted in the past few decades. In addition, studies have begun to provide evidence to help characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence.

Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits. 
(Adapted from Encarta and Wikipedia Encyclopedias)